As concerns about human treatment of the environment and animals have increased over the years, so have decentralized and extremist groups related to these causes. Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security analyzes the international development of radical movements relating to environmental concerns and animal rights in the context of the threats they pose to national security. In addition to tracing the factors responsible for the rapid growth of these movements over the last 25 years, this text presents countermeasures that governments can deploy to neutralize the risk posed by these threats now and in the future. Bringing to bear new developments such as cyber activity and online activism, Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security offers an examination of the direct and indirect violence, lone-wolf terrorism, and leaderless resistance that have characterized these radical wings from their inception. By not only identifying the tactics and organizational structures often employed by these groups, but also addressing future trends toward increased radicalization, Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security is an important resource for identifying, anticipating, and mitigating threats posed by such movements.
Describes the psychological, social, and organizational mechanisms responsible for the functioning of the extremist wings of the interconnected environmental and animal rights movements in the context of national securityIdentifies the main tactical and organizational ways these movements develop, moving from hierarchical organization to network structures, leaderless resistance, and lone-wolf activitiesCovers radical environmental and animal rights groups, including Earth First!, Animal Liberation Front, Earth Liberation Front, Animal Rights Militia, and the Sea Shepherd Conservation SocietyLooks to future trends in radicalization of these movements