Randolph Parsad ("petitioner") appeals from the March 29, 2002 order of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (Carol Bagley Amon, District Judge) denying his petition for a writ of habeas corpus, pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2254. We granted a certificate of appealability to determine whether the state court erred in holding that the admission of certain inculpatory statements did not violate petitioner's rights under the Fifth Amendment and Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966). For purposes of this appeal, we assume that petitioner was in custody when he made his initial, pre-Miranda statements and therefore assume that the detectives should have administered Miranda warnings earlier than they did. We hold, however, that petitioner's subsequent statements, which followed properly administered Miranda warnings, were both voluntary and cumulative of his initial statements.