Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this unique book provides a case study of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives (PNIs) instituted by President George H. W. Bush in 1991 and 1992 which ended many Cold War nuclear practices. President Bush's first PNI announcement was unprecedented on several levels. First, in its scope and scale; it instituted deeper reductions in a wider range of nuclear weapons systems than had ever been done before. Second, the PNIs were primarily unilateral—not to be negotiated, but instead implemented immediately. While Soviet/Russian reciprocity was encouraged, it was not required for most of the U.S. measures. Third, the decisions announced on September 27, 1991, were prepared with a speed and secrecy that had never been seen before in arms reduction, and have yet to be duplicated. The PNIs were developed in just 3 weeks and involved very few people. In contrast, most arms control measures, before and after the PNIs, required months and often years of interagency and international debate and negotiation by scores of military and civilian officials.
Why did this happen, and how was it possible? This case study discusses the general context in which the PNIs were developed, the concerns and goals that motivated them, and the national and international processes that led to them. The focus is on the initial announcement by President Bush, because it was the pathbreaker. The three subsequent declarations by the Soviet Union, United States, and Russia are also addressed, but in less detail.
The Context * A Determined President * A Willing National Security Team * Crafting the Package * The September 27 Announcement * The Soviet Response * The Path to PNI II * PNI II * The Russian Response * Conclusion * Appendix A. Text of Presidential Nuclear Initiative Announcements * Appendix B. Summary of Presidential Nuclear Initiatives * Bibliography